A typical program has three major segments: input, processing and output. So regular programming and Artificial Intelligence programming can be compared in terms of these three segments.
In regular programming, input is a sequence of alphanumeric symbols presented and stored as per some given set of previously stipulated rules and that uses a limited set of communication media such as keyboard, mouse, disc, etc.
In Artificial Intelligence programming the input may be a sight, sound, touch, smell or taste. Sight means one dimensional symbols such as typed text, two dimensional objects or three dimensional scenes. Sound input include spoken language, music, noise made by objects. Touch include temperature, smoothness, resistance to pressure. Smell input include odors emanating from animate and inanimate objects. And taste input include sweet, sour, salty, bitter foodstuffs and chemicals.
In regular programming, processing means manipulation of the stored symbols by a set of previously defined algorithms. In AI programming, processing includes knowledge representation and pattern matching, search, logic, problem solving and learning.
In regular programming, output is a sequence of alphanumeric symbols, may be in a given set of colors, that represents the result of the processing and that is placed on such a medium as a CRT screen, paper, or magnetic disk.
In AI programming, output can be in the form of printed language and synthesized speech, manipulation of physical objects or locomotion i.e., movement in space.