Posts Tagged ‘Learning by chunking’

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What is chunking?

Chunking is similar to learnig with macro-operators. Generally, it is used by problem solver systems that make use of production systems.

A production system consists of a set of rules that are in if-then form. That is given a particular situation, what are the actions to be performed. For example, if it is raining then take umbrella.

Production system also contains knowledge base, control strategy and a rule applier. To solve a problem, a system will compare the present situation with the left hand side of the rules. If there is a match then the system will perform the actions described in the right hand side of the corresponding rule.

Problem solvers solve problems by applying the rules. Some of these rules may be more useful than others and the results are stored as a chunk. Chunking can be used to learn general search control knowledge. Several chunks may encode a single macro-operator and one chunk may participate in a number of macro sequences. Chunks learned in the beginning of problem solving, may be used in the later stage. The system keeps the chunk to use it in solving other problems.

Soar is a general cognitive architecture for developing intelligent systems. Soar requires knowledge to solve various problems. It acquires knowledge using chunking mechanism. The system learns reflexively when impasses have been resolved. An impasse arises when the system does not have sufficient knowledge. Consequently, Soar chooses a new problem space (set of states and the operators that manipulate the states) in a bid to resolve the impasse. While resolving the impasse, the individual steps of the task plan are grouped into larger steps known as chunks. The chunks decrease the problem space search and so increase the efficiency of performing the task.

In Soar, the knowledge is stored in long-term memory. Soar uses the chunking mechanism to create productions that are stored in long-term memory. A chunk is nothing but a large production that does the work of an entire sequence of smaller ones. The productions have a set of conditions or patterns to be matched to working memory which consists of current goals, problem spaces, states and operators and a set of actions to perform when the production fires. Chunks are generalized before storing. When the same impasse occurs again, the chunks so collected can be used to resolve it.

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